Posts Tagged “caves”
Characteristics of Whales
The whales are one of the most amazing creatures that live on the planet, and inhabit all the oceans of the world.
The term balénido, of the family Balaenidae, refers to the mysticetes cetaceans, which involve only 4 species of whales, however the word «whale» is used in a broader sense to refer to all the great cetaceans.
Whales belong to the order of cetaceans, which means that they are mammals fully adapted to aquatic life, this includes dolphins and porpoises. Whales are descendants of terrestrial animals that returned to water after having lived millions of years on Earth.
Most whales can become very large. In fact, the blue whale is considered the largest animal in the world.
Whales are closely related to dolphins and porpoises.
There are two types of whales identified by scientists, bearded whales and toothed whales, and each of these sub-categories has several species. You can easily identify what category A whale belongs to on the basis of their diet and physical characteristics.
Whales have their own hierarchy in the groups they belong to. They are excellent parents with their offspring and are able to communicate with variety of sounds. If you have the opportunity to watch the whales closely, you will quickly understand how they value their relationships with others.
The physical design and anatomy of the whale is very complex, and that is why they are able to survive in the water. They depend on their pectoral and dorsal fins to help them move in the water and to maintain balance. They also have breathing holes in the top of their bodies, where they take the air, then, they can submerge under water for a period of time, before having to climb to the surface by another breath, is a characteristic of the whales that Definitely separates them from most of the existing aquatic life.
Many people confuse whales with dolphins, and what is really complicated is that they are in many ways. However, dolphins and whales are words that are used to separate these types of cetaceans by their size and physical characteristics.
Another creature with which the whales are closely related is with the hippo. It is believed that both evolved from a similar species, more than 50 million years ago. The story that leads to these conclusions is something you can find interesting enough to explore in greater detail later on.
Types of Whales
The bearded whales constitute most of the whales. They have a sieve structure, in the area of the jaw, which allows them to easily filter the food in the water.
The toothed whales are carnivorous, and as their name implies they have teeth that allow them to hunt their prey easily.
Another way to distinguish them is by the number of nostrils has a whale. All the bearded whales have two nostrils, while the toothed whales have only one blowhole.
Species of whales
There are quite a few species of whales from which we can study, of which you will find a lot of unique and common characteristics. If you are fascinated with this type of creature, then you should take the time to investigate, you will find that they are very intelligent animals, and interesting to know.
Several species of whales are hunted in some parts of the world. This has become a very popular sport due to the size of these magnificent creatures. In other areas whaling is carried out in order to provide food supplies for people in the area. Because of the combination of these scenarios, many species of whales are in danger. Therefore, if measures are not taken to protect them and their natural environment, the day may soon come when they no longer exist. This will certainly alter the natural balance of the waters.
Humans and whales
You will discover that the future of the whales could be endangered by the continual destruction of their living areas. The waste pollutes the waters and the areas in which the whales live is becoming less populated. They must also move to new places, when their sources of food are scarce, as a result, they increase the likelihood of being caught in the fishing nets and even being hit by boats in the waters.
Here are some of the most frequently asked questions about whales.
1. Why do whales sing?
The traditional explanation attributes the song of whales to the male whales, as a way to seduce the female whales while trying to reproduce…
2. How do whales communicate with each other?
A very low-developed sense of smell and poor vision at their disposal in the seawaters made the whales develop the sound as a way of communicating with each other…
3. Do whales actually sing?
Some whales, especially humpback whales and blue whales, produce a melodic sound known as whale song. However, it is important to understand that whales do not sing as we do, because they do not have vocal cords and do not need to exhale air as we do when we sing.
These songs change from station to station, and all males in the herd sing the same.
The purpose of whale singing varies from reproduction to communication. They can last up to thirty minutes and all the males in a pod sing the same song at the same time.
4. How long do whales live?
Some whales have a life similar to humans, in particular the blue whale comes to live 85 years of age…
5. What is a group of whales called?
A group of whales is commonly called a pod, or herd.
6. How much does the blue whale weigh?
Blue whales are the largest animals that have ever lived on Earth, even much larger than the largest dinosaur known. They can measure up to 108 feet and weigh about 190 tons.
7. How are whales classified?
There are two suborders of whales, bearded whales and toothed whales and they differ not only in their eating habits, but also in the way they communicate with one another.
8. Which is the largest whale?
The largest whale is the blue whale.
9. Which is the smallest whale?
The dwarf sperm whale the smallest of the whales. They measure up to 2.5 meters long (8 feet) in length and can weigh up to 272 kilograms.
10. How big is a sperm whale?
An adult sperm whale is between 11 and 15 meters long and can weigh between 20 and 45 tonnes. While it is not the largest whale, it is the largest serrated whale.
11. Why do the whales migrate?
During the summer season, the whales migrate to cold waters where the food is abundant…
13. Where do humpback whales live?
Humpback whales live in both hemispheres, crossing from one side to the other in the world during feeding and breeding seasons. They migrate more than 25,000 miles a year.
14. How do whales breed?
Whales are mammals, feed their offspring with breast milk…
15. Why are humpback whales in danger of extinction?
In the 18th century, the commercial value of humpback whales increased, making them a preferred target for hunters…
16. How do whales communicate?
There are two suborders of whales, bearded whales and toothed whales and they differ not only in their eating habits, but also in the way they communicate with one another.
The toothed whales, such as the shallots, use their breathing orifice to make a range of sounds that are used to communicate between them and also for eco-localization or bio-sonar.
Bearded whales, like the blue whale, use different methods to communicate with each other, producing sounds differently, which do not include air exhalation and are known as whale singing.
The shark is one of the most popular animals known to the people, because of the physical characteristics that it possesses and for the thousands of stories of the lethal things that can become their attacks in some circumstances.
Sharks have inhabited the earth for millions of years, even long before the continents were populated. From then until today, they have evolved in an astonishing way what makes it an extraordinary animal with an anatomy that does nothing but improve with the passing of time.
There are at least 360 species around the world. These predators are also known as sharks, and some are given the name mackerel, as is the case of the white shark and the bull shark.
By the regulation they maintain, the inconsiderate depletion of these animals could trigger an imbalance in the ocean.
Main characteristics of the shark
The Sharks are animals belonging to a family of fish that are formed by skeletons of cartilage, a tissue rather flexible and with less weight than a bone.
They manage to breathe through a series of membranes that are located on both sides of your body and like any other fish breathe underwater through their guts. These animals have colors that help them to be camouflaged from potential predators who can attack or their potential victims.
By or general, the upper part of your body is composed of a dark color and its lower or ventral areas of a clear or white color. Its skin is rough, tough and thick, ideal characteristics to protect itself from other animals.
They can have different sizes depending on the species we are dealing with, the shark with the largest length is the whale shark with a maximum of 18 meters. The skin of sharks is well known for having dermal denticles that allows you to act with silent movements.
The teeth vary according to the species and the quality they possess is that they can replace those parts that they lose in attacks. In addition to this they can perceive electrical impulses which makes it easier to hunt.
They have a much more active behavior in hours of the night for hunting and most of these animals will be seen alone, although there are other species a little more sociable in mating times.
It is said that these animals have a lifespan of at least 20 to 30 years.
Sharks have an incredible ability to adapt, as is the case of the bull shark that can live in both freshwater and brackish waters.
How shark Habitat is
To sharks we can find them distributed throughout the oceans around the world, the depth, temperature and other factors such as the availability of food, define their distribution.
Sharks can adapt to a wide range of habitats, being able to live in shallow water, at the bottom of the ocean or open sea, tending to prefer tropical and temperate zones.
What is the feeding of the shark?
The diet of sharks is very varied, these feed mainly on fish, crustaceans, molluscs, plankton and even other sharks.
Sharks use their senses of smell and vision to be able to find potential victims by using the surprise factor as a mode of attack.
These species do not need large amounts of food to be able to compensate for the energy expended by the long routes to which it is subjected.
How Shark plays
Mating between sharks can be given once sexual maturity is reached, which occurs at the age of 9 to 15 years.
They can give birth of 1 to 2 offspring and the way of reproduction of these animals varies, ranging from viviparous form in which the shark leaves formed.
Also oviparous that is based on lays eggs and ovovivípara in which it gives birth to living offspring, which were formed in an egg that hatches inside the womb of the mother, is where it develops before leaving.
What are shark species?
There is a wide variety of species scattered around the world, which vary in characteristics according to the species.
Some of them may have a large length while others are quite small, with behaviors that vary in the same way.
Next we will give you the most common sharks of the 360 species:
The scientific name of the white shark is Carcharodonus charis, it can reach about 7.5 meters approximately.
The white shark receives this name by the white color of its ventral area, on the back it has a color that goes from dark grey to light grey.
The bull shark is known by its scientific name Taurus, but around the world it has been given an endless names among which are: «Sand tiger shark» and «Damsel Shark».
It belongs to the family Odontaspididae and these are of average size of 2.5 meters but can reach a maximum size of 3.5 meters, not forgetting that they have a weight of 90 to 200 kg. The color that covers the entire surface of this shark is gray and its ventral area is white. He is known for being able to navigate in freshwater and brackish waters without anything happening.
The scientific name of the Fox Shark is Alopias superciliosus but it receives a variety of names, among them «Fox of Spectacles» «Zorro bigeye» «Fox Shark» and «Rabón». The color of this animal in its belly area is white and its entire surface has a dark brown color reaching to confuse with an almost black greyish color.
They can be measured from 3 to 4 meters, reaching a maximum size of 5 meters, with a weight of 160 kg (average) to 360 kg.
The scientific name of the shark Tintorera is Prionace glauca and receives varied names depending on the area where you are, so you can find yourself with names such as: Blue Shark, Caguella, and tile.
The color of this animal is really beautiful, in the belly area is white and all over its back has a metallic blue color, have an average size of 2.5 meters and a weight of approximately 80 kg.
The tiger shark is also known as Galeocerdo Cuvier or «Sea Tiger», belongs to the family Requiem shark.
This is known to be one of the largest sharks, they have an average size of 3 to 4.5 meters, but they can reach a maximum size of 7 meters and weigh 600 kilograms. It is a white color in the area of the belly and blue or green on its back, ideal colors to camouflage and be able to surprise its prey or prevent its capture, with stripes similar characteristics to a tiger.
The whale shark is the only member of the family Rhincodontidae, this animal receives various names among which stands out Domino fish, fish lady and scientifically Rhincodon Typus.
The color in its ventral part is white in its entirety and its back is a very dark gray, also has yellowish and white polka dots that form horizontal and vertical lines and has a size of 12 meters.
The iguanas are greenish reptiles, of the family Iguanidae, belonging to the class of Sauropsida (Reptiles), in the Order of the Squamata (scaly), and its scientific name is Iguana. This genus brings together two species: the Caribbean iguana and the Green Iguana, from Central and South America.
These quiet and very observant animals are valued as pets. Every day there are those who choose them for their company, but they do require a lot of attention. Although it would not be appropriate to have them in captivity, you can offer a wide space where they can develop.
General features of the Iguana
Iguanas usually measure between 60, 70 centimeters or 2 meters long, estimated size from head to tail.
Its weight is usually between 15 and 17 kilograms.
These reptiles have a light green coloration, but sometimes this color gets darker.
Its hind legs are much larger than the front, but both have very hard and sharp claws that use to climb the trees, holding strong to not fall. They also tear the body of their victims in order to eat it.
Its tail is also very strong and has almost the same length as its body. They use it as a defense branch against their predators.
Iguanas moult their skin on a regular basis, this process is known as ecdysis. This happens because their scales tend to grow and, instead of producing new ones, they replace them by changing their skin. However, this process is different in every reptile.
These animals are poiquilotermos, that is to say, they vary their internal temperature in large proportions, according to the environment where they are located. For example, the temperature of an iguana in the day, will oscillate between 29 and 39 degrees, while in hours of the night is between 20 and 25 degrees. These temperature changes are favorable to your survival.
These reptiles are often found in parts of South America, Central and North America. Iguanas can adapt to the sun and rain, for them the most important thing is to find water and food. Iguanas usually inhabit humid areas where vegetation abounds; For example, forests, rivers, pastures.
Also where the temperature is between 26 and 28 degrees. High-rise trees are their favorite places, they can scale easily and at high speed.
In nature, alpha males usually guard and fight for their territory, especially for the best places to bask in sunbathing. The way to defend these areas, sometimes becomes aggressive, where the iguana manifests itself with head movements, widening of its jowl and signs of bites. While the less dominant males do not battle for that place, and prefer to retire to other sites.
A fact of this is that when the iguanas are captive, they cannot express this territoriality, which makes them stay stressed. Therefore, if you have more than one iguana at home, try to keep them in ample places to avoid clashes.
The iguana is a herbivorous animal, it feeds specifically on plants, herbs, flowers, fruits and vegetables. But this diet changes depending on age and weight; For example, adult iguanas usually eat every 24 hours, while the younger ones do so at least once a day. Thanks to this type of feeding, the iguanas have very developed the senses of sight and hearing, this will help to flee in a situation of danger.
In its natural habitat, a peculiarity that accompanies these reptiles in their diet is the practice of coprophagia (voluntary intake of feces), especially is common in younger individuals, they tend to eat the excrement of their companions to Get the intestinal flora while in adults, this practice is not usual.
On the other hand, if you have an iguana at home, you can feed it with small pieces of fruit and vegetables, never give them processed or artificially sweetened foods. For water, you can give it a drink by placing a container or a low plate or if you can’t opt for a drip method, where the water falls from the leaves or branches and she can easily take it.
Before mating, the iguanas are usually courted with head and tail balances, and it is at that time when the male rides the female. If at that moment the female iguana is suitable for mating, you will receive the male, but if not, then you will let go.
The reproduction of the iguana is oviparous, i.e. a reproduction process where the egg completes its embryonic development in an external way. The iguana can place between 20 to 70 eggs, and the incubation will oscillate between 60 to 110 days approximately.
In a natural state, the female will look for soft areas where they can dig a deep hole and deposit their eggs, they are covered with soil, away from predators. It is estimated that the life span of these reptiles is 10 to 20 years.
Common ailments of iguanas
Metabolic bone disease: The captive iguanas especially manifest.
Their main cause is improper care on the part of humans.
Due to the lack of exposure to ultraviolet light B, the lack of it, favors the development of the disease.
Nutrient-deficient food, low calcium and vitamin D3 will affect your health more.
This condition in the iguanas will cause them: defective jaws, deformed spine, constant fractures.
Common parasites: Plants and trees used to simulate iguanas ‘ habitats are usually provided with bacteria, fungi, and parasites.
Abscesses in iguanas: these are frequent, especially, in iguanas that inhabit groups and often battle over the territory.
Reproductive difficulties: Dystocia is the most common condition in captive females. It occurs when the eggs are caught in the oviduct and cannot be expelled by the iguana.
Behavior problems: Captive iguanas, as they grow, will become aggressive, especially males for territorial reasons.
Iguanas are territorial animals, so it is normal to be disturbed by the presence of other iguanas. It is recommended not to have mirrors near them so that they cannot be looked at.
Keep Clean the area where they are, collect the droppings, leftover food, and constantly rinse food and water containers.
Avoid direct contact, do not kiss your pet, this could cause infections and transfer of bacteria between both.
Feed with vegetables and small pieces of vegetables. Try to make this way of feeding her by herself. I mean, don’t try to feed it with your hands, otherwise use guates.
Fruits are important in your diet, you can vary them and feed them in an interdaily way.
You can help her with vitamin supplements for reptiles.
Never feed them with insects. This could kill them.
Place several containers with water in the area where you have your pet.
Make it a resting area, this will be the reptile’s comfort zone. There you can stay calm with sunshine and a little warmth.
Dolphins interact with humans since their existence is known. Since then, its most dangerous predator, and the only one that has drastically reduced its population is the man. Although we all agree that dolphins are wonderful, very intelligent and kind, we remain a great threat to them.
Characteristics, food, origin, habitat, species and reproduction of the dolphin
The dolphin, also called Oceanic Dolphin, is an amazing mammal that is part of cetaceans, and is considered one of the animals with more intelligence on the others. It belongs to the family of the Delphinidae and is located in the order of the odontocetes (sea animals with teeth) in this group also enter the whale, the sperm whale and the porpoise.
Similarly, dolphins have a common kinship with platanistoideos, generally known as river dolphins. For a time it was assumed that the cetaceans came from a species of terrestrial placentae already extinct, called Mesoniquios, however, at present it has been possible to show that the Dolphins have an ancestral past in the Artiodactyla. In the Miocénico period, the odontocetes appeared on the planet, and by that time the primitive dolphins were not very different from the current specimens.
Generally, the dolphins measure between one and nine meters long.
Its weight ranges from 70 to 110 kilos. The color of his body is grayish.
Because of their elongated body these animals are usually extraordinary swimmers, and through the hole that has on the top of their head, they are able to breathe out of the water.
They can reach depths of up to 260 meters.
Thanks to the caudal fin can be moved at high speed under water, on the other hand, use the pectoral fins to direct the movement, they can move at will.
The dolphins have a slender and elongated snout that can contain between 20 and 50 pieces of teeth, they are called: dentition Homodonta, since each of their teeth are exactly the same.
They are often very sociable, playful in spirit and have a lot of energy thanks to their developed brain that has evolved in a surprising way over the years have the ability to understand and communicate with each other.
They have their own vocabulary, through studies it has been proven that they use compound phrases by coupling syllables and consonants. This vocabulary is based on the emission of different tonalities of sound to say what they want.
These mammals are able to express among themselves feelings of affection, communicate when they are in danger and even when they need help to do something in particular.
The reproduction of dolphins is based on two stages: courtship and mating, this characteristic is common in all subspecies. Ovulation of females usually occurs about four or five times a year, but this may vary depending on the temperature of the water, how well they feel in the habitat where they are and other outside conditions.
The dolphins are usually bisexual and polygamous, so they are not tied for life with a specimen of their kind of opposite gender. Like any mammal, the Dolphins copulate through the penetration of the male to the female, a process that occurs during the spring, twelve months after copulation, the female will have a gestation period of 10 to 18 months and will give only a single calf, then should Wait until two years to conceive again.
Something characteristic in the dolphins during the reproductive stage is that they are very respectful of themselves, the younger ones let choose the female first the male chief Alfa without coming confrontations between them. The longevity of these specimens is 29 to 60 years of age.
Currently, some 46 types of dolphins are recognized, all of them included within the suborder of the odontocetes cetaceans. Since they have existed more than 30 million years ago, a process of speciation has been given with very different varieties in anatomy, habitat and behavior. Here we will mention the most representative types of dolphins within this family according to their gender.
Common coastal Dolphin, genus: Delphinus.
Common Oceanic Dolphin, genus: Delphinus delphis.
Bottlenose dolphin, genus: Tursiops truncatus.
Spotted Dolphin, genus: Stenella frontalis.
Dark Dolphin, genus: Lagenorhynchus obscura.
Southern Dolphin, genus: Lagenorhynchus australis.
White Dolphin, genus: Albirostris Lagenorhynchus.
Pink Dolphin, Genus: Inia geoffrensis.
The dolphin can be regarded as a universal mammal as it lives in all the seas of any existing ocean, with the exception of the polar oceans. Because they are so intelligent animals they choose to live in a social way with others of their same species creating numerous populations that come to surpass the thousand specimens for each group. Dolphins are also usually located in river areas.
However, there are oceanic and marine dolphins, although in general terms it is a species that widely inhabit the world, it is always conditioned by basic necessities such as food and safety.
One finds the river dolphin (Platanistoideo), it is very common in the mouths of the rivers and river courses. However, this species does not live in all rivers, although it is normal to find it in regions of India such as Ganges and in South America, specifically in the Amazon.
Among the most common foods are small fish and generally squid, easy-to-digest crustaceans that easily devours. They also usually eat cod or herring, mackerel, sardines, crabs. Commonly, small animals that can then digest as they do not chew food.
The daily intake of food of the dolphins implies a consumption of approximately 10% of its own size, being a very restless animal, spend enough energy, that is why they usually ingest fish and crustaceans of high energy value.
On the other hand, the offspring feed only on the milk supplied by the mother, which contains all the nutrients needed in both proteins and fats. Later, as the calf grows, he will walk away from his mother to find his own food.
Its main food is carnivorous, they are excellent hunters so the capture of prey to be able to feed is the order of the day. The dolphin hunting system is very interesting, they are even capable of hunting being more than 60 meters deep, since, despite the absence of light, they are usually guided by a technique of geolocation very developed that allows them even to detect the Size of the dam.
If on the one hand, the orca used to hit the ice banks to disorient and make their prey lose balance and make them fall into the sea, dolphins use employ more practical and ingenious methods.
For example, when there is a shoal of fish, the dolphins will swim around them at a certain speed to make a kind of sphere, where the fish will be caught without being able to leave. At different intervals, each of the Dolphins will cross this «sphere» to catch the fish they can, while the other dolphins continue swimming around.
Another technique used is aquaplanning, where they push their prey to surface water to be able to submit them without any problems. Another widely used hunting maneuver is the so-called mud curtain, this technique is to drag the prey to surface waters, specifically to the edges where a mud curtain is created and it prevents the prey from getting out or moving easily. The dolphin is an animal with many skills and hunting is one of them.
Characteristics of sea lions
In fact, there are seven species of sea lions in the world, and people tend to put them all in one category, all of them belong to a group of animals known as pinniped.
Wolves or sea lions are very interesting animals that can become very large, males are much larger than females, which helps them to mate, as females prefer large males to reproduce.
Sea lions are found in water bodies around the world except in the Atlantic Ocean. Many researchers find this interesting, however, it has not been possible to determine precisely the reasons why this happens.
Some species of sea lions live in the sub-Arctic regions, while others live in warmer climates, including California. Their bodies, in the form of a torpedo, are well designed for movements, both in the water and on the ground. All species of sea lions are considered mammals. This is because they give birth to their offspring and the females breastfeed their puppies with milk they produce in their bodies.
Sea lions only have two natural predators, orcas and sharks, and the threat they pose depends on the areas where the sea lions live. When they must delve farther into the waters to find food, they will be more likely to find these predators, though man has proved to be the greatest threat to the survival of the sea lion for a long time.
We really only know the basics about sea lions, including their anatomy and their mating habits. What we know is that, they are very social animals and they have variety of communication methods, however, we don’t know much about so that different types of sounds are used.
They are often living in extremely large colonies, and for their protection they will stay close together, both on land and in water. These large colonies are composed of several sub-groups within. It is common for sea lions to move from one subgroup to another during various stages of their lives.
For example, males are more likely to be solitary, they form harems when mating, lasting several months. When the larger colonies are formed again, the females with calves are more likely to stay together, once the Cubs meet about one year of age they tend to form small subgroups as well.
Sea lions are considered very intelligent animals. They have been used to learn tricks in aquariums, they have also been trained to help the U.S. Navy with its water needs. For the most part, it is considered a shy animal, but there have been some reports of aggressive attacks on human beings. Males are very aggressive when it comes to winning the right to mate with females.
The future is unsafe for many species of sea lions, the years of destruction by humans has really made a dent in their populations. Environmental concerns continue to cause problems for these mammals in their natural habitat as well, the fact that human beings are taking control of the waters where they once lived in peace is a huge concern. Despite conservation efforts, there is still a great deal of work to be done, so that these animals can survive.
Some of the most curious facts about sea lions.
They belong to the order of the marine mammals called Pinipedos, the Latin meaning of the word is «foot of fin» or «foot of wing».
They are amphibian animals, which means that they adapt to life in both the water and the Earth.
They can swim at a speed of 11 to 24 miles per hour and are able to remain immersed for 10 – 15 minutes at a time. They can be immersed in depths of up to 1,300 meters.
On earth they use their hind fins to walk, climb or even jog, allowing them to move with astonishing speed.
In the acts of circuses and aquariums, they balance the ball using their whiskers, not their noses.
It has a layer of outer hairs called brown hairs that appear when dried, and help keep the sea lion warm. When wet, the skin is flattened by giving them an elegant dark-colored coat.
They can be active both day and night, and they can sleep both in and out of the water.
No animal has a fur as distinctive as that of the zebra. The stripes of each specimen are as unique as fingerprints (there are no two equals), although each of the three existing species has its own general pattern.
And why do zebras have stripes?
Scientists are not sure, but many theories focus on their usefulness as a certain form of camouflage. Their patterns can pose a difficulty for predators when distinguishing an individual in a herd to the race and distorting the distance at sunrise and dusk. Or they can evade insects that only recognize large areas of skin of the same color, or act as some kind of natural sunscreen. Because of its niche character, stripes can also help zebras recognize each other.
Zebras are social animals that live in herds. They pace in a group, usually grass, and even groom each other.
The most abundant species is the plain zebra (or Burchell). They live in small family groups formed by a male (stud), several females and their offspring. These units can be combined with others to form spectacular herds of thousands of individuals, but family members are held together in the bosom of the herd.
Zebras must watch at all times to avoid hyenas and lions. In a herd there are many eyes to detect the danger. If an animal is attacked, its family will go in its defense, surrounding the wounded zebra and trying to repel the predators.
Zebras are exclusively herbivorous mammals that eat mostly in the morning and in the afternoon, resetting at noon. They are animals that feed on coarse grass, leaves and sprouts. They also eat bark and twigs. Its digestive system, well adapted, allows them to subsist on a diet of nutritive quality lower than that needed by other herbivores, but it is also less efficient, forcing the zebras to spend more than half of the time eating.
Zebras can move about twenty miles in a day in search of food, but at the end of the day they usually return to their point of origin. Even so, the herds of zebras make a much more important annual migration, which coincides with the dry season and which also make many other African mammals and represent a movement of hundreds of thousands of animals at once.
The dry conditions of the ecosystems in which the zebras inhabit make them adapted to the arid periods. Grevy’s zebras are the best adapted to drought conditions. To survive the dry season, where most rivers, ponds and other water sources dry out, this zebra species digs into the riverbed with its hooves to find water.
The mountain Zebra takes advantage of the characteristics of its habitat to survive the dry periods. When the water sources of which it remains are dried, this species simply migrates to a higher altitude, where the lower temperatures cause the water vapor to condense in the form of rain, snow or dew.
The common zebra is the least adapted to drought. Unlike the other two species, it always needs to have water available, forcing it to migrate from one place to the other according to the station in search of water resources.
As in most animal species, females reach sexual maturity before males, and may have their first foal at the age of three. However, males cannot breed until they are five or six years old. The mares can give birth to a foal every twelve months, which is the duration of gestation. They take care of the offspring up to a maximum of one year. Like horses, zebras are able to stand up, walk and suckle shortly after birth. At this point, the Zebra Pony is brown and white instead of black and white. A single colt is almost always born, but on extremely rare occasions twins can be born.
In the case of mountain zebras and common zebras, foals are protected by their mother, as well as by the male and the other mares of the group. Instead, Grevy’s zebra Colts only have their mother as a regular protector, as the groups of this species are usually scattered after a few months. The protection of foals is especially relevant for these animals, as the offspring are an easy prey for predators and half of them do not survive the first year of life despite the efforts of their mother and the male group. Another of the dangers that the Colts are the infanticide and feticidios among the zebras, although only this behavior has been observed in specimens in captivity.
Types of Zebras
COMMON ZEBRA (EQUUS QUAGGA):
The common zebra is the most numerous and most extensive species geographically. It is also the one with the most different subspecies. It measures about 2.5 meters long and 1.5 meters high on the back, with a mass of 385 kg. It has a great importance in the field of tourism in some of the countries in which it lives, as it is one of the most famous African animals. The northern populations have the stripes rather defined than the southern.
MOUNTAIN ZEBRA (EQUUS ZEBRA):
The mountain zebra is a species that lives in small groups and which, unlike the common zebra, is not grouped in herds. It measures about 2.2 meters long and 1-1.4 meters high on the back. Its mass is between 240 and 370 kg. It has two subspecies, one of which, E. Z. Zebra presents sexual dimorphism, as females are larger than males. It lives in arid mountainous areas.
GREVY ZEBRA (EQUUS GREVYI):
he zebra of Grevy is the largest species of all, with a measure between 2.5 and 2.75 meters long and 1,45-1.6 meters high to the back. Weighs between 350 and 440 kg. Other differences of this species with respect to the others are their big ears and the fact that their stripes are narrower. It is also about the species that can withstand longer without drinking water.
Characteristics Species and Habitat of Seals
Seals are found around the world, there are 33 known species of these marine mammals. They enter a category of animals known as the pinniped, due to the fact that they have fins on their limbs. Depending on the seal species, there is a big difference between the sizes, the larger ones can be about 16 feet long and the smallest of just about four feet in length.
Many researchers believe there were many species of seals that became extinct in the past, yet there is still a lot of information to collect in that field. One of the most common types of seals is the grey seal. There are more of them than any other, and their number continues to increase annually, however, many other species of seals are in danger of extinction.
There are many reasons the fall in the number of seals worldwide. A very important one occurred in 1988, a type of distemper virus that spread rapidly among these animals and resulted in the death of 1/3 of all common seals residing in the North Sea.
Seals are very intelligent animals, and have been used in a variety of conservation programs like those of Sea World. However, it is very important to understand that they are still wild animals. They have been known to bite and attack human beings who get too close. This is because of their natural instinct to protect themselves, their offspring and their surroundings.
They look like tender creatures, with their bodies and little brown heads. They are mammals, due to the fact that they breastfeed their cubs with milk until they are old enough to feed themselves. They are warm-blooded too, so they depend on their layers of fat to keep the heat when needed.
Some think that seals are lazy creatures because they can often be seen basking in the sun, Inns on the rocks, however, they are very busy when they are in the water, which is most of the time. When they are on Earth for a longer period of time it means they are raising, about to give birth, or moving. If you are not familiar with it, it is the skin desquamation process, this is done once a year for seals.
It may take up to six weeks for the moult period to be completed, often very noisy, irritable, and agitated during this period of time. The investigators once believed this was because it was painful, but that is not the case. Instead, it is now believed to be due to higher hormonal levels. Seals also do not feed during this period of time, they have enough fat to survive comfortably.
They are very curious, so they will follow the boats to see what is happening aboard them. This is a great way for people on these boats to see seals closely in their natural environment.
We have a lot to learn about seals as a whole, you can also find out a lot about individual species. Take a look, whether on the Internet, in books or at animal conservation sites to find out everything you can about these charismatic animals, you will not be disappointed by the vast amount of information that can be found regarding seals.
Here are some of the most frequently asked questions about seals.
How big are the seals?
When they are born, the common seal calves weigh approximately 12.8 kg (18-26 lbs) and measure about 70-100 cm (28-40 inches) in length. Young people grow rapidly, and adult males can measure up to 1.9 meters (6 feet 3 inches) long and can weigh up to 170 kg (370 lbs). The adult females are slightly smaller, reaching 1.7 meters (5 feet 7 inches) long and weighing up to 130 kg (290 lbs).
What do the seals eat?
Common seals feed on a variety of shoals of fish, including herring, mackerel, and flounder. Their big teeth allow them to catch their prey, which they then swallow whole.
How long can the seals stay underwater?
Common seals usually dive for only a few minutes, but the longest dive recorded by a port seal or common seal was 31 minutes long.
Why do seals look on rocks?
Seals can be found on rocks during low tide to rest and absorb the warmth of the sun.
Are the seals protected?
Yes. All seals are protected by the Marine Mammal Act of 1972, which was promulgated to protect and administer marine mammals, such as whales, dolphins, porpoises, seals and sea lions.
Features of Komodo Dragon
Of the more than 5,600 species of lizards, the Komodo Dragon is the largest. It is a huge lizard, which can measure up to 10 feet long, averaging about 8 feet for females. They weigh about 150 pounds. Because of the size, and the aggressiveness of this lizard, in many cultures there are stories and legends about them.
The base color of the Komodo dragon is greyish or light brown. Those who live in the desert sand have a similar color to it, combining very well with their surroundings. In the body they have areas of black or green color.
Komodo dragons have sharp teeth in their mouths (60 of them). These teeth have been examined and experts believe they are of the same size as those of large sharks. When the teeth fall off, for various reasons, this lizard is able to grow them again, no matter how young or old that moment is.
It is believed that the Komodo dragon evolved from the great reptiles of the genus Varanus, which walked over the earth more than 200 million years ago. Many experts are curious about why this is one of only two species that produce poison.
Could they be more closely related to snakes than to other lizards?
So, a lot about the process of evolution of the Komodo Dragon remains a mystery, but there are many theories. It is believed that the Komodo dragon used to be several times larger and, over time, they might be able to adapt, and so they continued to live when the dinosaurs died out.
The Komodo Dragon is the most aggressive type of lizard in the world. Iran after other animals, as well as humans. They have incredible power because of their large size, they also have amazing speed. They can climb, which is unusual for a lizard of such size. You can find them near the bodies of water, and they will even enter the water to get their prey. Their bodies are designed to be natural swimmers.
Habitat and distribution
Komodo Dragon 2The National Park is made up of many small islands and is where this lizard lives in the wild. They are able to continue to thrive in improper conditions, whether for other creatures or for human beings. Many of them are in captivity, in zoos, because they attract large crowds.
The area where the Komodo Dragon lives must be arid for them to do well. They can live in the forest or in the open savannah and do better at temperatures around 40 degrees Celsius every day.
The area in which this lizard lives in a wild state is dry all year round, except for the monsoon season. These lizards need water to survive, and they have the ability to store water when it rains, or when they enter the water to swim. When your body gets too hot it excretes salt instead of water.
The Komodo dragon is worthy of an incredible sense of smell. Experts believe that they are able to smell up to six kilometers away if the wind blows in the right direction, this allows them to find their prey easily. The combination of speed, powerful teeth, and strong venom means that they come out, almost always, victorious when it comes to getting their prey.
Sometimes they just bite the prey and this escapes, however, the Komodo Dragon will not be far behind this, they will wait for the poison to infect the prey and kill it. When they bite and cling to the prey, they inject the poison, while feeding the prey will be alive, but it will not be able to move at all. They are able to bite big chunks of what they ingest.
Part of the ability to do this is due to its flexible neck. Whenever possible the Komodo dragon will not even go hunting for a living food, they are content to consume a variety of decaying remains, of the dead with which they stumble or who sniff.
They also consume birds, and the eggs they can find. It is not unusual for the Komodo dragon to consume other lizards as well. They are opportunistic and eat when they can, to build the layers of fat needed to survive at a time when food is scarce.
Although this lizard is considered, normally, very aggressive, this will increase as the mating season is presented. The males fight each other, biting and using their tails, until one of them gives up. When a male approaches a female, she will put her long tongue in her mouth.
This allows you to know if you are ready for mating or not. When mating occurs, the couple quickly separates and the mech will go for a new adventure.
The female will have a great responsibility, must find where to deposit up to 20 eggs. You have to find a warm place where predators are less likely to encounter them. It leaves them there alone and fate will decide if they are able to survive the incubation. The offspring, when they arrive, have to be able to find food and shelter without any direction of the mother.
Because of their size, strength and venom they produce, the Komodo Dragon has no natural predators. However, they are often trapped and killed by human beings. There is a strong hatred for this species of lizard among many of the people who live around it. No one wants to take the risk of being bitten by a Komodo dragon.
The excitement of hunting is exciting for an athlete. They often travel to remote areas for hunting this lizard. The villagers accept money in exchange for helping them to do so, and even though hunting is illegal, it continues.
Many people believe that turtles are only slow animals, which in fact have been used to compare with someone who is not very active.
Although It is not false that they are slow, what is completely true is that they are much more than that. Them are simply amazing and extraordinary animals, also it is the oldest that nowadays live on Earth.Although popularly we know them simply as turtles, their scientific name is Testudines and if you do not know they belong to the class of reptiles. There are terrestrial turtles and sea turtles and both are spectacular, coupled with unique features and a wonderful variety.
Origin of turtles
The turtles are reptiles, which are considered the oldest that inhabit the planet Earth. They have evolved differently, so land turtles and sea turtles can be found.
It Is said that because they are so old they are direct relatives of the dinosaurs, and that their shells have emerged mainly as the ossification of dermal plaques that were fused with the organs, in order to protect themselves.
Sea turtles have evolved with fins and shells suitable for swimming through different ocean currents.In the same way their beaks have become finer to be able to reach the food in the reefs and crevices under the sea.
Physical Characteristics of turtles
Turtles may be of different sizes, but they all share similar characteristics, such as those named below:
The Carapace, also known as the back or dorsal of the tortoises, is wide, hard and resistant. In the case of the Leatherback turtle has a flexible shell, while the pig nose turtle has a soft shell, giving the feeling that this has lost its back.In the case of land turtles this is usually in the form of a dome, while in the sea turtles are usually not as high, but rather a little chatty.The Shield has been formed by the ossification of layers of skin and serves as a shelter and gives protection to these reptiles against their potential predators. There Are Both shells and types of turtles, to the lower part of this is known as Plastron.
They are Usually of various colors, and their structure is formed by a series of characteristic shields, which are usually of keratin cornea, and indicate the growth of the tortoises. Terrestrial tortoises are characterized by sunbathing, they do this in order to take advantage of vitamin D from the Astro King and thus strengthen their shells.
The turtles have 4 legs, 2 rear and 2 front; In the case of sea turtles are evolved and rather have become fins, which use to swim.
The Skin of the turtles is rather coarse and rough, sometimes it can be compared with a leather.
It Is covered by a corneal layer of keratin that resembles scales.
The colors of the turtles are varied, and are usually in accordance with the environment around them.
Among the colors of the terrestrial tortoises predominate the brown tones, dark greens and ochres.
On the other hand the brown turtles have green, olive, brown and yellow colors.
Turtles are of different sizes, for example terrestrials can measure 10 centimeters while the larger marinas reach more than 1 metre and a half.
How Long do turtles live?
These are very long-lived animals that can come to live even more than 100 years. There are official records of a tortoise that lived 150 years.
How Do they feed?
Feeding of land turtles
The majority of the terrestrial turtles are herbivorous, however there are also omnivorous species. But usually these tend to eat fruits, vegetables, leaves, lettuces, cabbages and there is a case of ingestion of small insects and beetles.
There Are terrestrial tortoises that inhabit desert regions, they have adapted to the environment and can spend long periods of time without feeding.
Feeding of aquatic turtles
In this case they are carnivorous turtles that feed on small fish, barnacles, algae, corals and sea sponges, which by the way is the favorite menu of the hawksbill turtles.
Turtles are animals that adapt very well to the climatic conditions of their environments, this is one of the reasons why they are the oldest animal on Earth.
Terrestrial turtles can inhabit forests, jungles, islands and even there are specimens that can live in the deserts.
Its anatomy will adapt to the environment and will be conditioned to obtain food.
For example, the Galapagos tortoise (larger tortoise) has a long neck for Bush food.
As for sea turtles, they prefer to swim in deep seas and emigrate through the sea currents.
They can be found in almost all the oceans of the world, either the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Indian and the Mediterranean Sea.
Mainly They are quiet reptiles, however their behavior varies according to their environment and their species.
The terrestrial turtles have a calm behavior, which is often sedentary.
Although There are species that like to be on the move and explore around them.
It Is very common to see the terrestrial turtles taking sun baths, because it is the way they have to strengthen their shell.
On the other hand, they like to romp a little in a pond of water level, as they take advantage to cool.
The behavior of sea turtles is fascinating, for example the males once they enter the sea are never seen on the surface again.
On the other hand the females only come out to lay their eggs.
They Swim in groups through the different streams, are characterized by long migratory trips.
How Turtles are reproduced
The turtles are oviparous, that is to say that they are born through eggs, and they are reproduced in the following way:
Females reach their sexual maturity between 9 and 15 years of age, which is when they are ready to mate and reproduce.
The breeding season occurs between the spring and summer seasons, when some species of sea turtles do not find males to copulate these are able to lay eggs that are obviously not fertilized.
They Reach their sexual maturity between 9 and 20 years, even make large migratory trips only to mate and lay their eggs.
The females come to the shore of the beach in which they leave their eggs and then return to the sea.
The eggs Are not re-visited by the mother.
Dangers of Extinction
Unfortunately, many species of both terrestrial and marine turtles are in critical danger of extinction.
The reasons are several, but they are generally related to the modifications that the man’s hand has received from his surroundings.
On the other hand the extraction of these reptiles in an illegal way to be marketed also poses a threat to their reproduction.
In The case of sea turtles, when eggs are left on the shores, they are left at the mercy of different predators, indicating that they will not all survive.
The Accidental fishing of sea turtles, is also a reason that threatens the life of these amazing animals.