Archive For The “Habitat” Category
CHAMELEON Features, What Eats, Habitat and Species
The word chameleon is automatically associated with the change of color in the fur. However, these reptiles do not do it by taste, but by necessity. Its condition of life, either psychological or physiological are the main causes of the variation of tonality.
Unique and impressive. So are the chameleons, who are native to Africa and are part of a family of small reptiles (saurópsidos).
They are the only animals in the world, able to change the color of their fur to express more often when they feel hot or cold. It could also be to defend against any eventuality as possible enemies. Whatever your reasons, your way of expressing your condition causes you to steal the looks of those who have the opportunity to appreciate the changes that usually resemble a rainbow.
Chameleons are small animals that have flaky skin. Its measurement oscillates between 23 and 55 centimeters; They can vary according to their race. They come to weigh during the 4 to 15 years of life between 20 and 500 grams.
Other aspects that characterize the chameleons are that they have big eyes, able to move so independent, they give a view of almost 360 degrees. His tongue also gives him a touch of peculiarity. It is elongated and thanks to its sticky tip, it is capable of hunting all the prey that they crave, at a very fast speed.
To be mounted by the branches of the trees more easily, this species has legs divided into two single fingers. While its prehensile tail also gives it the ability to hold on to the branches, as one of its security measures.
Although they are fast to feed these carnivorous animals, to mobilize is quite the opposite. They can even stay motionless for several hours.
As for food, chameleons that are usually diurnal, eat a variety of insects that do not chew. Larger species can consume even birds and lizards. While there are others that like vegetable matter. Its menu is concentrated in grasshoppers, crickets, mantises, insects and lobsters.
Although the largest number of chameleons live in Africa and Madagascar, some also inhabit southern Europe, Sri Lanka, India and Asia minor. They have No exclusivity in environments. They can live in mountains, jungles, sheets and seldom in deserts. In fact, there are species that are in Hawaii, California and the United States.
Although it is an animal only, the chameleons meet with those of their same species only at the time of reproduction. The male courts the female, becoming a true rainbow that has scales and legs.
However, males do not always end up achieving their goal: mating, because if the female thinks the timing is not adequate, is able to hurt the male to leave it alone.
As for its reproduction, it does not differ in anything from the other species. There is No fixed time for new creatures to be born. Mothers create great tunnels to make their eggs safe. Once the gestation time is fulfilled, it is up to the creature to face life.
Chameleons are not easy to maintain. However, the chameleon of Yemen or Pantera are the ideals if you want to have a rainbow, so to speak at home. They’re much easier to maintain.
As its name implies, its origin is located in Yemen and Saudi Arabia. He lives in the mountains.
It can become growing 55 centimeters long, in case of the men, and 35 cm in the females. It comes from Madagascar.
It reminds the dinosaur Triceratops, so they are also called three horns. He’s originally from Kenya.
In adulthood, this class of chameleons can reach 60 centimeters long. His head is smaller than his body. He can live to 12 and 20 years.
It is one of the largest and most robust chameleons that exist. He’s originally from Madagascar.
Some very curious data that people should always take into account, is that chameleons have a hearing capacity that is even more developed than humans. The same thing happens with the vision, because they can see colors.
They also adopt the position that best suits them to sleep. Upside down is always the ideal.
As for your color change, you can do it at your leisure in just 15 and 20 seconds.
The dog called pet dog or can
The dog called pet dog or can, and colloquially chucho5 or Tuso, 6 and also Choco; It is a carnivorous mammal of the family of the canids, which constitutes a subspecies of the Wolf (Canis lupus). In 2001, it was estimated that there were four hundred million dogs in the world. Its size, its shape and fur is very diverse according to the breed. It Has a very developed ear and smell, being the latter its main sensory organ. Its average longevity is about thirteen to fifteen years, although the small races can reach up to twenty years or more, while the giant races only live nine or ten years.
The domestic dog comes from an ancestor or common ancestral group dating from about 30 000 years ago and has since spread to all parts of the world. The first fossil remains of dogs buried together with humans were found in Israel and date back about 12 000 years ago. Since then, dogs and humans have evolved together, both in African and Eurasian cultures, and in those who populated America and remained without contact with those until the 15TH century. Dogs share the environment, habits and human lifestyle, such as diets rich in cereals and starch. Inadequate feeding, as well as the use of antibiotics, are the cause of the development of many inflammatory and immunologic diseases. About Four hundred diseases of the dog have a human equivalent, especially highlighting Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological disorders, as well as cancers, autoimmune diseases and cardiovascular diseases.
Concept of race
The concept that scientists have of race, as a group that shares genetic traits, differs from the colloquial use of the term given by people as synonymous with variety. The term «race » in science would include all the varieties of dogs that inhabit the world, i.e. there is only one «race» of animals that comprise dogs and this definition would be closer to the taxonomic family label. The Vulgar extended the significance of «Raza » to the different varieties of dogs, such as Bulldog, Doberman or Chihuahua; This because the dogs are phenotypically different so they created that «social construction «, however in zoology, the concept of «race » is not synonymous with variety in the species. Dogs have genetic diversity, but this is mainly due to selective reproduction under controlled conditions. This is similar to the human species. There are No races in humans: Asians, Blacks, browns, whites, redheads, small and tall are varieties that are still the same species as dogs. As with humans and dogs and other species, there are people, even scientists, who defend the concept of «races.»
There Are about four hundred races more than any other animal that varies significantly in size, physiognomy and temperament, presenting a wide variety of colors and types of hair according to race. These breeds of dogs are less than two hundred years old, because they are the result of an intense artificial selection, made by humans from the late NINETEENTH century to the present, with the aim of creating at their whim specimens that meet Certain aesthetic and behavioral criteria. This has led to the growing development and transmission of numerous health and behavioral problems, including serious malformations and genetic diseases that can cause chronic suffering and decreased life expectancy. Also, certain practices required to meet the standards set for certain breeds, such as tail amputation, may cause chronic pain (such as those experienced in other types of amputations and Phantom limb syndrome) and inability to Communicate adequately with other dogs and humans.
They Have a great relationship with humans, for those who are pets, guard animals, working dogs, hunting dogs, water dogs, race greyhounds, Guide dogs, sheepdogs or dogs Boyeros to name a few.
The dog along with the cat are the most popular pets or pets.
Differences from other canids
Compared to wolves of equivalent size, dogs tend to have the skull 20% smaller and the brain 10% smaller, in addition to having teeth relatively smaller than other species of canids. Dogs require less calories to live than wolves. Their leftover diet of humans made their large brains and mandibular muscles used in the hunt cease to be necessary. Some experts think that the flaccid ears of dogs are the result of atrophy of the mandibular muscles. The skin of the domestic dogs tends to be thicker than that of the wolves and some Eskimo tribes prefer their skin to dress, due to their resistance to wear in an inhospitable climate. Unlike wolves, but like coyotes, domestic dogs have sweat glands on their leg pads. The legs of a dog are about half of those of a wolf and its tail tends to bend upward, another trait that is not observed in wolves.
The longevity of the dogs varies from one race to another, but in general the smaller races live longer than the larger ones. The smaller dogs often live up to the age of fifteen or sixteen, while the larger dogs can have a life expectancy of only half. In between are all intermediate races. The oldest dog on record, an Australian Boyero named Bluey, died in the year 1939 at the age of twenty-nine years. The sterilization of the animal can prolong or shorten its life, reducing the risk of contracting diseases such as Piometría in the female or testicular cancer in the male. It Also reduces the risk of accidents and injuries, as unsterilized dogs fight and escape more. On the other hand, castration of the male favors the emergence of prostate cancer, a disease that can drastically shorten the life of the animal.
Like the wolves, the dogs have a fur, a layer of hair that covers the body. The fur of a dog can be a «double coat», composed of a soft bottom layer and a top layer is enough. Unlike wolves, dogs can have a «unique fur», lacking a lower layer. Dogs with a double fur, like wolves, are adapted to survive in cold temperatures and tend to come from colder climates.
The dogs usually present traces of countershading, a pattern of common natural camouflage. The General base of the countershading is that an animal illuminated from above appears clearer in the upper half and darker in the lower half, where it usually has its own color. This is a pattern that predators can learn to recognize. A countershaded animal has a dark coloration on the upper surface and a clear coloration on the underside. This reduces the overall visibility of the animal. A vestige of this pattern is that many races have a side, a stripe or a white fur star on the chest or at the bottom.
There Are Many different forms of dog tail: straight, straight up, sickle-shaped, curly or ringlet. In some breeds, the tail is traditionally cut to avoid wounds, especially in hunting dogs. In some breeds, some puppies are born with a short tail or no tail. This happens more often in certain races, especially in those where the tail is often cut and therefore have no standard of race in terms of the tail.
Like Most predatory mammals, the dog has powerful muscles, a cardiovascular system that allows high speed and great resistance and teeth to hunt, hold and tear prey.
The ancestral skeleton of the dogs allows them to run and jump. Their legs have been developed to propel them quickly forward, jumping when necessary, in order to hunt and catch prey. Therefore, they have small, tight feet and walk on their toes (digitigrade). Its hind legs are quite rigid and solid, while the anterior ones are lax and flexible, being attached to the trunk only by muscles.
They Have A form of dichromatic vision called Deuteranopia that in humans is considered a form of daltonism that affects red and green. The dogs perceive shades of yellow and blue, but red perceive yellow and green see gray.
His visual system has been developed to help them in hunting. Although It is difficult to measure, the visual acuity of the poodles has been estimated as equivalent to a score in the Snellen test of 20/75. However, visual discrimination is far superior when it comes to moving objects. It has been shown that dogs are able to distinguish their owner from other people at distances of more than a kilometer and a half. [Citation required] As Twilight hunters they depend on their vision in low-light conditions. To help them see in the dark they have very large pupils, a higher density of rods in the optical fovea, a greater flickering speed and a refractive tapetum lucidum. The Tapetum is a refractive surface located behind the retina that reflects the light to give the photoreceptors a second chance to capture the photons. Although these adaptations serve to improve vision in the dark, they also reduce the visual acuity of dogs.
Like Most mammals, dogs are dichromates and have a color vision equivalent to red-green daltonism in humans. The different canine breeds have different shapes and sizes of the eyes and also have a different configuration of the retina. Dogs with a long snout have a «visual stripe» that extends through the width of the retina and gives them a very wide field of excellent vision, while the dogs with the short snout have a central area, a central region with up to three times the density of te Rminaciones nerves of the «visual Stripe», which provides a detailed view, much more similar to that of humans.
Some breeds, particularly greyhounds, have a field of view up to 270 °, although wide-head races with short snouts have a much narrower field of view, as low as 180 °, similar to that of humans. Some breeds also present a genetic tendency to myopia. Although most breeds are emmetrópicas, it has been discovered that one in two rottweilers are myopic.
The field of dog auditability is approximately 40 Hz to 60 000 Hz. 47 Detect sounds as serious as 16-20 Hz — compared to 20-70 Hz in humans — and also above 45 kHz48 — compared to 13-20 kHz in humans — , and they also have a degree of mobility of the ears that allows them to quickly determine the exact origin of a sound. Eighteen or more muscles can tip, rotate, raise or lower the ears of a dog. In Addition, you can locate the origin of a sound much faster than a human and detect sounds at a distance of up to four times that of humans. Dogs with a more natural form of the ear, like the ears of wild canids like the fox, tend to hear better than the dogs with the most flexible ears typical of many domestic races.
While The human brain is dominated by a large visual cortex, the canine brain is dominated mainly by an olfactory cortex. The olfactory bulb of dogs, in proportion to the total size of the brain, is about forty times greater than that of humans. According To the breed, dogs have between 125 and 220 million of olfactory cells spread over an area the size of a pocket handkerchief compared with five million cells spread over the area of a seal in humans. The Bloodhound are the exception, with approximately 300 million of olfactory receptors. Dogs can distinguish smells at concentrations almost 100 million of times lower than humans can distinguish.
Among The canine senses, the taste is the least investigated and has often been related to the smell. Dogs can distinguish the basic flavors in a similar way to humans, although they hardly distinguish the salty. However, the preferred tastes can differ a lot from one dog to another, because it seems that they do not choose the food according to the type of taste, but according to their intensity — strong taste/soft taste. The first months of a puppy’s life are quite important in this sense as they tend to try many different flavors when they are young they will also develop a taste for the variety when they are adults. 53 like the humans and that many other animals , dogs have the ability to associate certain tastes with health problems. If a food makes you sick or makes you feel bad, you will tend to avoid the taste of this food in the future. This is part of an instinctive defense mechanism that protects animals from being poisoned by frequent ingestion of toxic substances.
Dogs use the sense of touch to communicate with each other and with other species. If done properly, touching a dog can be used to stimulate or relax you. It is the first sense that develops in newborn puppies and the dogs begin to lick and caress their offspring shortly after birth. 54 Some studies have even suggested that dog can detect movements in the mother’s abdomen Even before being born and that the dogs that are pampered during gestation give birth to more docile offspring. 55 The Dog has tactile sensors throughout the body, but the bearings, the spine and the tail region are some of the most sensitive areas.
The Vibrissa of the Dogs present mecanoreceptores that serve them to acquire tactile information of their environment, but this function is not as important as it is in the cats. Among other things, they serve to feel the flow of air. Besides the snout, where they are called «whiskers», the Dogs have vibrissa above the eyes and under the jaw.
The Aquatic Hippo Walker
The Aquatic Hippo Walker. It is a giant mammal The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius) is a large mammal artiodáctilo, mainly herbivorous. It Is A semi-aquatic animal that inhabits rivers and lakes. Adult males are territorial, forming groups of 5 to 30 individuals to control an area of the river.
The Hippo is easily recognizable by its barrel-shaped torso, the huge mouth it has and its teeth. His body is smooth skin and almost hairless, has stubby legs and a large size, being the third terrestrial animal by weight. Despite its stunted shape and short legs, it can reach speeds of up to 30 km/h in short distances. She Is One of the most aggressive creatures in the world and is often considered to be the fiercest animal in Africa.
Although not a strictly nocturnal animal, hippos are active during the night, spending most of the day sleeping or wallowinging in water or mud. The water serves to keep your body temperature low and to prevent your skin from drying out. Except to eat, most of their lives (courtship, struggles between them, childbirth…) occurs in the water, abandon only at dusk.
They move inland to graze in areas of short grass, their main source of food. Although like most herbivores, they will consume another type of plant if given the opportunity. The hippos rest together in the water, but the pasture is a solitary activity and they are not territorial on land. Most of their bowel movements occur in the water, creating deposits of organic matter in the riverbeds.
Its average longevity is between 40 years of age in a wild state and 50 years in captivity. Males reach sexual maturity around seven years of age, while females do so between five and six years of age, beginning puberty at three or four years.
The mating between the hippos occurs in the water, with the female submerged during most of the encounter, becoming one of the few mammals that give birth under water. After a gestation period of eight months, the offspring are born with a weight of between 25 and 45 kg. They usually stop a single calf, although there are two cases. They Swim underwater to breastfeed, but they also do it ashore if the mother comes out of the water. Weaning occurs between six and eight months after birth and most of the offspring are totally independent when they reach the year of age.
There Are approximately 125,000 to 150,000 hippos throughout sub-Saharan Africa, but they are threatened because of the loss of their habitat and poaching to get their flesh and ivory from their canine teeth.
Within the large group of Mammalian animals, we find the Common Hippopotamus, striking for many, and little known to most of us all, as to its characteristics that are its own.
Of the family of the Hippopotamidae, is one of the two members that has this family, because in addition to the common hippopotamus that we will talk about in this note, there is also the pygmy hippo, which differs not only by the habitat where it lives but by the large size that P Osee the Common Hippopotamus.
This mammal, although at first sight one believed to derive from the group of pigs, actually derive from the large group of placental mammals, name that receive those who spend a lot of time inside the womb of the mother, feeding on the placenta, examples of This group is the whales. It Is so that from this group of mammals, about 56 million years ago is that it derives the Common Hippopotamus.
It Is A mammal of large size, semi-aquatic, this means that it spends its life on land and in water at the same time. They Spend the time of day in the mud or in the water, including the times of copulation and childbirth of the offspring. This is because they seek to avoid that the sun dries their skin, which is almost completely deprived of hairs (except the area of the head, where it has some small and fine hairs).
They Are characterized, in addition to being territorial and to walk in groups, usually between 5 to 30 hippos females, in such a way that they control the river where they are.
AT night, this mammal becomes a little more active, as it is the moment done leaves the rest of the water to move to the earth to eat herbs.
A striking fact is that although, as we said, in the water is a territorial animal and is always part of a group of adult hippos, during the night each specimen is rather solitary, seeking their food and activity is far from being Territorial.
They Are characterized by having a big mouth, like large teeth, a very smooth skin, only with some wrinkles, and a large body in the shape of a barrel, but quite long, while its belly is always touching the ground. His neck is short, and this makes him look like a chubby animal.
It Is Gray in the body, less in the area of the ears because there its color changes to a dark brown.
As for its weight, it can weigh about two to three tonnes, which makes it the third heaviest animal, then the rhinoceros and the elephant.
Although their legs are short (each of them has four fingers with their hooves), it can run at 29 or 50 miles per hour, but they always do quite short distances, as they are not migratory animals.
It Is considered the most dangerous animal in Africa, as it is a very aggressive and hostile mammal, being able to kill other animals in case of feeling threatened, and it is even a very aggressive animal with the man.
On the other hand, its mouth can open up to about 150 degrees, striking and very characteristic data, just like the fact that its foot secretes an acid or substance that prevents the formation of bacteria and that although it is colorless, can be reddish, or amorronado , but it is a defense mechanism as it functions as a protector against the sun.
Has a life expectancy of about 45 years about
They Are herbivorous animals, that is, they base their diet on herbs. They Eat during the night, mainly herbs that are short, and help with the lips to cut them, spending up to 5 hours eating. As We know the herbivore is their diet is only herbal, and almost never eat aquatic plants, but can sometimes eat other types of plants, and even registered hippos predators and scavengers (ie ate animals killing and already dead)
Because It is an animal belonging to the group of Semiaquatics, it lives in rivers and lakes in the area of sub-Saharan Africa, or also called Black Africa, which comprises all the countries of this continent except those that border the Mediterranean Sea.
So we can see it for example in: Kenya, Somalia, North Congo, Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, as well as in the part a little more south of Africa, as in South Africa, Zambia, etc. Also in Mosambique and Tanzania.
As we said belongs to the group of placental mammals, this is that Cía spends a lot of time in the womb of the mother, and feeds there of placenta.
Females reach maturity at 6 years of age, while males do so only at 7. The gestation period is about eight months.
While the sperm of males all year round are active, the female cycle is more fertile in summer, which is why there are more hippo births during the winter season.
Danger of Extinction
The Common Hippopotamus, unfortunately, is another species that is in danger of extinction, because its main enemy is the man, through poaching to use his skin on one side, and on the other, his teeth from where you get the ivory. In Addition to the well-known destruction of their natural habitat.
PUMA THE MOUNTAIN LION
Puma the mountain Lion, So they say to this great feline. The Puma is a member of the feline family, in some areas they are known as mountain lions. It is found in a variety of different habitats and therefore they are considered to be highly versatile and adaptable animals. They Have huge territories, which makes it difficult to keep an account of how many remain in their natural habitat. They Are very good hunters and possess powerful jaws capable of falling prey to large size. The total size of a puma varies from 115 to 265 pounds, and they are able to topple a dam several times larger than they
Many things about Puma fascinate us, they are the fastest of all land animals in North America (about 40 miles per hour for short periods), they can also jump up to 45 feet horizontally and up to 16 feet vertically, giving them Incredible opportunities when it comes to getting their prey.
The Puma is a solitary animal, both in the way it lives as when hunting. When a couple gets together for mating, after this occurs each one will go by its side. Males can travel long distances and even fight each other for the right to breed with females. Mothers are very good with their puppies, and they are bred and taught to hunt during the first couple of years of life.
The Cougar does not have the ability to roar like some wild cats, however it makes use of a variety of sounds to communicate during mating and care of their offspring. These sounds include whistling, grunting, and singing. When they want to call each other emit a similar to human cries, they are also the largest felines with purr capacity.
What are Cougars Like?
The Puma has a brown coat, just like the African lion. The most recognizable feature of the Puma is that it is its long and heavy tail, which measures almost two-thirds of the length of the head and body. Male mountain lions usually weigh 110 to 180 pounds, while females are slightly smaller, weighing 80 to 130 pounds. The Puma should not be confused with its cousin, the Wildcat (a smaller cat of about 22 pounds), recognizable by its mottled fur, pointed ears and short tail.
The future for Puma is uncertain, human beings continue to deplete the territory where these animals live, a problem that threatens their future existence. Although there are conservation efforts, it becomes very difficult to get their numbers to rise, but they are considered with less chance of extinction, when compared to other big cats.
One of the biggest problems with humans invading Puma’s space is that they consider them to be dangerous animals. People are very afraid of the attacks of these wild animals, there are farmers furious with the fact that the Puma hunts their cattle.
In the state of Wyoming the Puma has been making a great comeback, exciting news for conservationists, but increasing the tension that already exists between them and humans. Come to the conclusion that human beings can be happy and these animals can have their habitat continues to be a battle that has no easy answers. It Is estimated that approximately 50,000 Pumas remain in a wild state.
Pumas attacks on humans have increased in the last decade because, the latter, they are becoming closer and closer to the areas where Pumas live. The attacks are often fatal and most of these are towards children or small women. When Hiking, children should stay among adults and not allow them to go ahead on their own.
How do Pumas breed?
Females usually reproduce at 2.5 years old and usually have 2 or 3 kittens or puppies. Newborn kittens weigh about a pound, measure about a foot long and have dark patches on their fur. Within 8 to 12 months, these spots fade, kittens are weaned at 2 months and soon accompany their mother around their hunting territory. The mother raises her little one and trains him to hunt. The puppies remain with her for 18 to 24 months, and then disperse to find their own territories.
Female Pumas are ready to mate when they are 1 ½ to 3 years old. Males are ready to mate at 2 to 4 years. Couples are not very social with each other, but they tolerate each other during mating. They Can take part in this activity frequently and females tend to have many couples. As a result, your litter can be of several different males.
After mating has been successful the female will carry the calf in her body for about 90 days. You Will Find a place to use as a den so that your puppies can be well protected when they are born, these young people are very vulnerable at birth because they are blind at birth, instinctively they are able to find their mother’s body in search of heat and milk.
The Young Pumas will be well cared for by their mothers, who can have 1 to 6 puppies at a time. The mother is very protective of her offspring and will fight large predators like Grizzly bears if necessary. Puppies will be weaned when they meet about 3 months of age.
Then they will venture out, with their mother, to play and learn. They often venture out of the Den with their siblings and play, a way To become stronger and determine dominance among siblings. That classification is important because if the food is scarce, the highest and strongest ranking will be the one that obtains the available food.
It Can be very difficult for a mother Puma to hunt enough food for her and her offspring. When They are about 6 months old they will begin to assist with hunting, this helps to reduce the burden of the mother to ensure that young people have the necessary skills they need to hunt on their own in the future.
When puppies are about 2 years old they should leave the care of their mother. The mortality rate is about 90%, between hunger, predators and other acts occurring in nature, it can be very difficult for many of these young Pumas to reach maturity. The bigger the cougar the better chance he’ll have to survive.
The life expectancy in the nature of a puma, if it manages to live that first crucial couple of years oscillates between 8 and 13 years, this is compared with 20 years for the born and bred in captivity.
There Are areas where young Pumas are taken and sold, there are people from all over the world who love Pumas and find them very interesting, want to be able to own an exotic pet and like the idea of having something that no one else has , they also have the idea that if they have it from the beginning they can tame it.
Many people have been able to do this, but there are also cases where the owners have been attacked. It Can be very expensive to maintain or puma because of the amount of food consumed daily, are very powerful animals and so if you decide to attack you will have very little chance of surviving.
The Puma and the leopard have mated in captivity, resulting in the Pumapardo.
How do Pumas live in nature?
The American Lion is very territorial and its territories can vary from 25 square miles in Idaho and California to 1000 square kilometres in West Texas. They Mark the boundaries of their territories with scrapes on the earth, leaves and urine. Pumas tend to be more active at sunrise, dusk and night when they roam their area in search of prey.
Pumas are notable in their ability to adapt to a wide variety of habitats, they seem to do equally well in the alpine forests of Alberta, Arizona’s Sonoran Desert, or the rainforests of Mexico. They Are from sea level to 14,765 feet in height, in the dense forests of the Pacific northwest, the southwestern desert, and in the Florida Everglades.
Mountain lions have an extraordinary vision and are very fast. In standing position you can jump a vertical distance of up to 16 feet and a horizontal distance of 40 feet. They Choose the deer as prey, more than any other animal, but they also feed on wild pigs, raccoons, rabbits and hares, porcupines and birds.
If you or someone you know lives in the territory of a puma, simple steps can be taken to prevent these interactions. According To the Department of Fishing and Hunting, one of the most important advice is: do not enter Puma territory alone, go with a friend or bring a dog. Always take a friend with you when you go camping, hiking in wild areas.
Even when a cougar is found, they seldom pose a threat. Most Pumas prefer to avoid humans.
Puma populations are classified into different subspecies. So when we talk about «population», the mountain lion we are referring to several different populations. In California, the population of mountain lions residing in the Santa Ana Mountains is in serious trouble, according to expert Dr. Paul Beier, rampant development has blocked many wildlife corridors, so that Santa Ana Pumas are More and more isolated from other populations. These corridors are necessary for the migration of the young Pumas, without which the Pumas of Santa Ana face the danger of extinction.
However, the general population of Pumas is not in danger of extinction at this time, in fact, of the wild cats are the ones that best are doing in the nature.
THE TIGER PANTHERA GRIS
THE TIGER PANTHERA GRIS, belongs to the Felidae family and the genus Phantera. It Lives only on the Asian continent and is considered the largest feline in the world. The largest subspecies are the Amur and Bengal; On the contrary, the smallest is that of Sumatra.
Six are the tiger subspecies that currently exist, predominantly that of Bengal, which constitutes 80% of the total population of this feline. India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Burma, and Bhutan Are distributed. Three subspecies became extinct during the TWENTIETH century.
DESCRIPTION OF THE TIGER
The male tiger reaches a length of 2.5-3.9 meters and a weight of approximately 90-306 kg; Only the tail can measure between 60 and 100 cm. Females are visibly smaller and thinner. Their teeth are very strong and long, measuring about 2.93 inches.
The black stripes in its fur helps them to identify each other, since each one of them possesses a unique «design», apart that they are used for the camouflage, mainly at the moment of hunting. Reach the incredible speed of 85 km/h.
This Big feline has the ability to swim and learn its prey in the water. Develops sense of sight that allows you to observe perfectly in the total darkness of the night.
Males are highly territorial and hunters. Its territorial extension can cover an area of 80 km2 while that of the female barely 20 km2.
They Do Not allow other males to enter their territory, only females, and they can even share food by letting them consume it first. To Mark this territory, the urine and other bodily secretions scattered in the trees, are their best method.
They Are The main predators of their habitat, therefore their diet includes very large and difficult to hunt animals. Among their favorite foods are pigs, deer, antelopes, buffaloes, deer, wild boars, crocodiles, fish, birds, reptiles and sometimes leopards and bears, usually when they are young. They Prefer to hunt alone and capture their prey in a lateral way or by surprising them from behind.
If It is a large animal, the tiger covers the remains with grass and then finish it days later. In a single meal it can consume up to 40 kg of meat, unlike those found in zoos that are fed only 5.6 kg all day.
REPRODUCTION OF THE TIGER
They Reach their sexual maturity at 3 or 4 years for females and 4 or 5 years for males.
The gestation of the calves lasts between 100 and 105 days and may have 1 to 7 tigers every 2 to 4 years. Births are more common between November and April and occur in dens, caves or areas with a lot of vegetation. Half of the puppies do not survive, mainly by other males who come to kill them, so the female can become pregnant again at five months.
THREATS TO THE TIGER
3, 200 is the astonishing number of tigers left all over the world. This in their natural habitat, although there are more in captivity, but the conditions in which they live can never be better than their freedom.
The Illicit trade of this species, its hunting for the obtaining of its skin, (mainly used for fashion designs) its bones used in medicinal remedies and the massive destruction of its environment, are so alarming problems, that the tiger, in all its Varieties, is about to form part of the archive of extinct animals.
WHERE DO TIGERS LIVE?
The Tigers are territorial and solitary animals, which means that during their life they have a territory of approximately 20 kilometers. The Tigers that inhabit the south of Asia, have greater dominance over wider territories.
We Can Locate the tiger species in the Asian continent such as India, some regions of Russia, Western China, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Nepal, and some species in North Korea and Burma.
The Siberian tiger, is found in Russia, or in eastern areas of Siberia.
The Malay Tiger, lives on the peninsula of Malaya.
The Tiger of South China whose scientific name is Panthera tigris amoyensis remains in captivity.
The Sumatran Tiger is located On the island of Sumatra or Indonesia.
The Tiger of Indochina or Cobertti, this population is distributed in Burma, Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Vietnam and China. At last.
The Bengal Tiger is the largest, it is found in India, although some of this species have been displaced to Nepal, Bhutan and some areas of Bangladesh.
The African lion
The African lion is a predator of massive color, belonging to the family of the felines. On average, the African lion is the highest of the large felines, the Siberian tiger tends to be significantly longer and heavier.
It Is One of the last predators and an extraordinarily beautiful creature, the adult male lion has a colorful necklace of long hair around the head and the neck is known as Mane, which begins to develop when it is approximately 10 months old .
THAT AFRICAN LIONS EAT
The Lions have impressively powerful shoulders and front paws, they have claws that allow them to seize the largest prey of any terrestrial animal. Their prey is Often approximately 600 and 1000 pounds such as giraffes, antelopes, buffaloes, zebras and even elephants in a convenient situation.
The Lion comes from the Felidae family of the genus Panthera. It Is a carnivorous animal that lives in the North African and Asian regions and is represented by 2 geographically differentiated subspecies: the African lion (Panthera Leo Leo) and the Asian Lion (Panthera Leo Persica).
The Lioness does most of the hunting, and the females will work together to shoot down a large animal. If Some lions have trouble catching their own prey, they will try to steal prey from other animals like hyenas or wild dogs.
Young lions do not begin to help pride to hunt for food until at least 1 year of age. Although Lions prefer to hunt in packs, a lion hunts independently if there is a source of food available.
Compared to other felines, lions are very social animals and live in sets of 5 to 25 individuals called herds. The environment is composed of multiple adult females, their cubs, and certain adult males.
These males, often siblings, can come and go, and even be members of more than one environment in unison. They must continually test themselves as established leaders of the environment, defending themselves from all other males in serious quarrels, and on mortal occasions.
Females hunt together, sporadically they are aided by male members, however, when hunting is over, adult males, usually between 30 and 40% larger, eat first.
Most adult male lions live alone or in small sets called «Single», they are not strong enough to accept the males established in progress. And the leaders agreed, led under incessant battles, finally yielding to a rival or stronger opponents and retire to a solitary life.
WHERE THE AFRICAN LIONS LIVE
Although Lions used to live in most of Africa, they are now found only in the southern Sahara desert and in parts of south and East Africa. Historically, in addition to Africa, lions from Greece were found across the Middle East to northern India.
African lions roam the prairies and extensive savannas of central and southern Africa, the smallest, the lighter Asian lions live in the jungles of South Asia in tiny amounts.
KING OF THE JUNGLE
Of The 20000 lions in nature, there are only 525 Asian lions at risk of extinction, living in the jungle of Southern India. The familiar African lion lives in the savannah prairies of central and southern Africa.
Asian lions are also called Persian or Indian lions. They are slightly smaller than African lions, and have their own skin folds that can be seen on the sides of the torso, and a considerably sparser mane.
These Lions have been actively protected by the Government of India over the past 30 years, and their small jungle territory was declared a national park where human activity is prohibited. Asian lions found in wildlife have been increasing from 250 to over 500 in a fairly short period.
CHARACTERISTICS OF AFRICAN LIONS
Male lions have a maximum length of 3.5 metres, including their tails measuring 1 metre long; They have an approximate height of 1.5 meters and can reach weighing between 180 and 270 kilograms. Females are slightly smaller than males, however they have a length of 2.5 meters and a maximum weight of approximately 185 kilograms.
It Has a life period of 13 years the males in the wild and 15 years the females, however in captivity can come to live more than 25 years.
African male lions have a majestic mane that characterizes them and varies in abundance and length, and the color of their mane is somewhat dark compared to the rest of their body that is yellow brownish. It is estimated that the function of this mane is to intimidate others and to appear more bodily.
Basically It is estimated that the Mane also serves as protection at the time of the fights because it hides the throat to the opponent, a shining mane of a healthy lion can attract the attention and many females.
However, African lions drink water regularly, are apt to obtain their needs from dams and even plants and thus be able to survive in very arid places.
Usually The Lions are polygamous and form herds of 1 to 4 males and 4 to 16 females with their puppies, however, there are also situations of solitary lions, of 2 males or solitary females for the absence of herd, shortly before reaching maturity the young Lions It is abandoned or expelled from the herd to evade inbreeding.
REPRODUCTION OF THE AFRICAN LION
The female is poly-estrus, which means she could ovulate up to 4 times per year until it is paired. When in heat or «warmth», they are paired with a herd male for two days along which they will mate repeatedly.
Your pregnancy takes 3 and a half months to 4 months and when you are ready to give birth, leave your herd or environment to find a good nesting place. The Lioness gives birth to 2 to 4 puppies and continues to be separated with them over multiple weeks, before returning to the herd and introducing the new members.
This is a dangerous time for the mother and the puppies, which usually passes quickly the young people on their way to their surroundings; When you return to the herd with the new puppies is received with many caresses on the snout and celebration.
Puppies feed on the whole environment now, and if they are orphaned puppies, another lioness generally adopts them and even breastfeed them.
The female cubs will live with the herd all their lives and leave for nothing. Male cubs move away from the herd, or are usually expelled by adult males, when they arrive at approximately 02 years of age. Who live alone or can be grouped into small sets of «single» males called «alliances» most males will never return to a herd, and never mate.
Only the strongest and bravest lions will try to take a herd by driving the males established in it. At a time when a new male or new set of males accept control, which often but not always and at all times kill younger puppies with the intention of starting their families.
Mothers are helpless against this, however, in the life of a lioness this does not happen often. New males can come every couple of years approximately, and if it is the right time, puppies may be old enough to not be harmed.
The primordial cause of the puppies ‘ death shows to be an attempt to liberate those mother Lions to mate again, and in general, Lions who lose their puppies for almost any reason are going to come back in jealousy very quickly.
The lion’s pride is in the first place, the social ensemble where individuals sustain in a long term, relationships frequently for life, collaborate in raising young people, and hunt down dinner as a unit.
Unlike the other species of felines, the members of the Lions ‘ herd will participate in the breeding of puppies, lionesses have been known by orphaned nursing cubs and raise them as their own, and have been observed still males guarding, correcting, and To the care of little puppies.
Although it is said that the lioness often does «all the work», the truth is that the life of a male lion can be considerably much more difficult. Like young adults, males are expelled from the herd by the dominant males of the instant. They Can spend years alone or in small sets of singles of other males called blushers, often made by siblings.
As they mature and progress, they prepare to return to the empire or neighboring herds and replace the dominant males, in fierce battles, which are sometimes fatal. If They succeed they often destroy each and every one of the former king’s cubs.
Now, while the dominant males, which mate with the females in the herd as they enter the time, and otherwise sleep in the sun or sleep in the shade up to 20 hours a day, waiting for the females to have dinner.
They will confront any male who tries to remove Them, and time will lose the fight, after just a few months or short years of glory, and sometimes one or more of his children.
Banished again from the herd, older and fatigued of the war, most likely spend the rest of his years on the outside of the herd looking face inside.
Only comparable to that of the horse, the male African lion in full, is an authentic icon of the animal kingdom. Its unmistakable image has appeared in some older coins, works of art and jewels in history. We humans have been impressed by many thousands and thousands of years and for multiple reasons for this majestic animal and its beautiful mane.
Currently there are different variations of lion that are generally given in captivity: the White Lion that is practically extinct of the wild life, which is not known exactly if they still remain, the little ones that remained in South Africa (Timbavati), have a particular color due to a recessive gene, being of great disadvantage because they could be seen by their preys easily by the day.
When paired a male lion and a tigress results in a Ligre, these animals are much larger than their parents, and have short legs, basically males are usually sterile while females are not usually.
The Tiglon, resulting from the crossing between a male tiger and a lioness, unlike ligre this animal is usually smaller.
The main threat of the African lions is their hunting, although it is illegal many hunters do not comply with that legality. Also The rise of agriculture has reduced the amount of prey and thus eliminate its source of power, this makes the lion is forced to kill domestic animals and people for their survival, making it a major and serious problem for the human.
Another major threat to these animals is to feed on poisoned bodies that are usually designated to eliminate predators.
Although African lions do not have natural predators, one of the causes of their death is violently caused between disputes or humans, mainly in male lions who are responsible for defending their herd, have much more Possibilities to act aggressively with rival males.
Another latent threat from African lions is the parasites that can cause death, including ticks, infectándole, neck, ears, and groin; The tapeworm that can be contracted from the antelope meat containing the larvae in their flesh.
However, African lions living in captivity are extremely vulnerable to many viruses such as distemper, feline Immunodeficiency virus (VIF) and Feline infectious peritonitis (PIF).
LEOPARD SMALL SAGAS
Leopard Small Sagas The leopard is the smallest of the 4 existing large felines of this species and is the most powerful of them. Leopards have impressively strong necks and shoulders, and are able to transport prey often much heavier than themselves and at the top of tree branches, where other predators cannot reach.
The great climbing capacity of the leopard and which differentiates it from the other large cats has become the greatest success of the whole, in terms of its numbers in the wild.
Now, If Leopards in Asia are animals that are at critical risk of extinction, the African leopard is quite numerous and estimates are that there are about 200 wild leopards in existence. That number is practically 10 times the number of each and every one of the wild lions, tigers and Cheetahs combined.
The great ability to climb trees not only gives them the means to hold their prey safe, but also gives them a quick escape from the many animals on the African plains that can make life quite difficult.
The Leopard is a gifted hunter, fast and efficient, is less than half the size of a mature lioness, has the conflicting tendencies of a hyena, and there would be no chance against a herd of African wild dogs.
To the progress that the cheetah hunts in the light of day and in the sight of the other predators that could estimate to steal its prey, the leopard hunts practice and only at night, and is a murderer known as silent. One of the things that makes the man-eating leopard that is impressively deadly.
A leopard has already advanced age or is wounded and that can no longer have game animals, can seek a simpler prey in a nearby African village.
At the pace that the devouring tiger of men is going to kill humans especially in their territory, leopards that resort to seize in humans are so quickly and deadly that they have been able to take the people of their beds without other companions of House realize.
The Leopard is an amazing and beautiful animal with a layer of shiny orange-colored refulgent dotted with circles of dots called «rosettes». Sometimes their macules are really square.
It can Also be said that it possesses a famous colouring genus such as the melanism, which is an increase in the dark pigment of the skin and hair, which is generated in roughly six percent of each and every one of the leopards and results in it Which is known as a «Black Panther.»
From the distance, the Black Panthers resemble being of solid black color, observing them more closely you can truly appreciate the black dots on the shield. The other big spotted cat, the Jaguar, is very similar in appearance to that of leopard and is simply mistaken for one. Jaguars are generally considerably larger than leopards, and have more rounded heads and considerably more extensive, with smaller ears and eyes.
Due to its larger size, it is that they do not share with the great leopards qualities of climber, so their way of life is much more like that of a tiger than a leopard.
The melanism occurs in Jaguars as in the leopard, produces roughly or at exactly the same rate as in leopards, and the term «Panther black» applies to the Melánicos individuals of the two species.
WHERE DO THE LEOPARDS LIVE?
Leopards are found in Africa and Asia, from Middle Eastern nations to Russia, China, Korea, India, and Malaysia. Consequently, they live in a wide variety of habitats, including forests, mountains, deserts and grasslands. The Leopard is a very adaptable species, and can be found in different regions of the world, including:
Sinai Desert in Judea
Southwest and Eastern Turkey
Foothills of the Himalayas
WHO EAT LEOPARDS
The Leopard is a silent and opportunistic hunter who only pursues and kills other animals in order to survive. Leopards mainly hunt medium mammals such as deer and wild boar, which are often ambushed from the upper branches or dense vegetation just meters away.
The Leopard, however, also eats a wide variety of small dams, including birds, reptiles and rodents even hunting players beetles when the larger animals are scarce. By eating a much smaller prey (and a wider variety), leopards can avoid intense competition for the food of other large carnivores such as tigers and hyenas, with whom they share parts of their natural range. They are Also very stealthy creatures that drag their prey to dense vegetation or trees to protect themselves from the nearby scavengers. The leopards are incredibly strong and are able to capture much heavier prey than they do, such as antelopes, which are then dragged into the security of the branches to be consumed immediately or cached (saved for later).
LEOPARD PREDATORS AND THREATS
Due to the fact that the leopard is a stealthy and cunning predator throughout its natural environment, generally the biggest threat to adult leopards are other leopards, along with occasionally lions or tigers that can get close enough. Young Leopard Puppies however are much more vulnerable and the fact that they have numerous natural predators leads them to remain hidden in dense vegetation during the first few months. Although, it is during the moments when his mother is out of hunting that the leopard cubs are at greater risk of hyenas, jackals, lions, tigers, snakes and birds of prey. Despite its adaptability to different environments, leopard populations in parts of their natural range are declining due to both the loss of habitat in the wood and agriculture industry, as well as the hunting of humans as trophies and their meat and hair.
The leopards are solitary and live the loneliest lives of each and every one of the big cats. Unless paired over a few days of mating, adult leopards are virtually never seen together.
The only time Leopards pass in close company is the first of a year and a half to two years of life next to mom. After that, and at the moment when the young man is leaving, they have no more contact with his mother, and no contact with his father, who never hangs around it and after the mating already finished.
The leopards mark their territories in exactly the same way that many cats do, with urine fragrance marks and the use of liquid marks in sight or leaving marks of deep claws in logs of chosen trees.
The male of the leopards of the territory is considered to be 3 times larger than the females, and will overlap or gather completely one or more females in the area of distribution. Even in this way, they will avoid each other, with what bellows as unaespecie of cough, while the rest patrol and know their time to prepare.
The clashes between leopards are strange due to the fact that with great scrupulousness they have no close contact, if so they want to have control one on another, marking their territory, visiting the sites that their neighbors mark on a regular basis and aroma.
Female leopards enter into zeal in multiple times of the time one year until pregnant. When looking for a companion of it makes a rare sound very similar to that of a house cat in heat.
A male and female are going to be paired over four or five days later and once paired, the male is left forever. The pregnant woman finds a safe hole and has a small litter of one to three puppies on average. More than three is possible, but it is very rare. The Newborn leopard puppies are dark gray, countless skin diffuse, and very wimp and without some point.
Leopards, especially those found in Asia, regularly give birth to only one puppy. Because of this, and that leopards have a solitary natural way of life, the survival rate is truly great for small leopards compared to other cats.
One of his most common opponents are the vipers that can locate the small puppies alone, waiting for his mother to return from a hunt. Lions are also a threat, in this way, and they will kill the young leopard lions if given or presented an occasion.
Lions also kill adult leopards, with no interest in eating Them, simply by marking their territory. The solitary male lions particularly try to capture 2 leopards making them practically like a sport, although they often choose more the cheetahs.
The Leopards have their greatest defense and are very active in the way they live their lives, quietly and secretly without any comparison.
There are Currently nine known leopard subspecies on the planet. The most frequent is the African leopard, which in our day is not at risk of extinction. The other subspecies, are distributed by means of small places along South Asia, India, and much higher across the Russian Far East.
In the upper parts of the north, the leopards settle in mountain areas, where the temperatures descend below zero on a regular basis. In certain areas they coexist with Siberian tigers, but they tend to be found in the meantime in snow roads and to avoid the areas that suffer any accumulation of existing snow.
African Leopard (Panthera Pardus pardus)
Amur Leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis)
Indo-China Leopard (Panthera pardus delacouri)
Leopard of India (Panthera Pardus fusca)
Java Leopard (Panthera pardus melas)
Leopard of Persia (Panthera pardus saxicolor)
Sri Lanka Leopard (Panthera pardus Kotiya)
North Chinese Leopard (Panthera pardus japonensis)
Arabian Leopard (Panthera pardus Nimr)
Each and every one of the Asian subspecies of the leopards is in danger of extinction, and some may still be extinct so far.